[26] India had a 25% share of the global textile trade in the early 18th century. In total, the boll weevil is estimated to have caused $22 billion in damages. [5][6], The oldest cotton textiles were found in graves and city ruins of civilizations from dry climates, where the fabrics did not decay completely. Sources such as Marco Polo, who traveled India in the 13th century, Chinese travelers, who traveled Buddhist pilgrim centers earlier, Vasco Da Gama, who entered Calicut in 1498, and Tavernier, who visited India in the 17th century, have praised the superiority of Indian fabrics. During the 1960s and '70s, a mill closed in Lancashire almost once a week. 300–500 CE. The diffusion of the spinning wheel, and the incorporation of the worm gear and crank handle into the roller cotton gin, led to greatly expanded Indian cotton textile production during the Mughal era. Spinning twists the individual fibers into a yarn, which can be completed by hand with a spindle and spindle whorl (in the New World) or with a spinning wheel (developed in the Old World). [58], Max Havelaar, a fair trade association, launched a fair trade label for cotton in 2005, the first for a non-food commodity. The name Cotton is of Anglo-Saxon origin and came from when a family lived in one of a number of similarly named settlements throughout England. The Mughals introduced agrarian reforms such as a new revenue system that was biased in favour of higher value cash crops such as cotton and indigo, providing state incentives to grow cash crops, in addition to rising market demand. The export of textiles was one of the sources of wealth for Meroë. In recent history, United States agricultural subsidies have depressed world prices, making it difficult for African farmers to compete. The cotton textile industry was responsible for a large part of the empire's international trade. [17], The earliest clear illustrations of the spinning wheel come from the Islamic world in the eleventh century. John Wiley & Sons, Aug 30, 1999 - Technology & Engineering - 872 pages. The knowledge of cotton weaving was spread to northern Italy in the 12th century, when Sicily was conquered by the Normans, and consequently to the rest of Europe. Anglo-French warfare in the early 1790s restricted access to continental Europe, causing the United States to become an important—and temporarily the largest—consumer for British cotton goods. [45] The modern cotton gin, invented in 1793 by Eli Whitney, enormously grew the American cotton industry, which was previously limited by the speed of manual removal of seeds from the fibre,[46] and helped cotton to surpass tobacco as the primary cash crop of the South. England would topple headlong and carry the whole civilized world with her save the South. Cotton is traditionally harvested by hand, and then the cotton is ginned--processed to separate the seeds from the fiber. Cotton was first spun by machinery in England in 1730. Here is a vital new source of "need-to-know" information for cotton industry professionals. [52], Prior to the Civil War, Lancashire companies issued surveys to find new cotton-growing countries if the Civil War were to occur and reduce American exports. In World War II, the British cotton industry saw an upturn and an increase in workers, with Lancashire mills being tasked with creating parachutes and uniforms for the war. The industrial revolution in England and the invention of the cotton gin in the U.S. paved the way for the … People used cotton to make fishing nets and other textiles. Cotham is in Nottinghamshire. This mechanical device was, in some areas, driven by water power. The Origin and Domestication of Cotton (C. Brubaker, et al.). Traditionally it is known to grow in African open forests and grasslands. Equipment includes tractor, two-row stalk-cutter, disk (to... Cotton, one of the world’s leading agricultural crops, is plentiful and economically produced, making cotton products relatively inexpensive. This was the usual word for cotton in medieval Arabic. By the 1850s, slaves made up 50% of the population of the main cotton states: Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. There are places called Coatham in Durham and the North Riding of Yorkshire. India was deemed to be the country capable of growing the necessary amounts. Working with small producers from Cameroon, Mali, and Senegal, the fair trade agreement increases substantially the price paid for goods and increases adherence to World Labour Organization conventions. Mehrgarh, the earliest agricultural village in the Indus Valley, holds multiple lines of evidence of cotton seeds and fibers beginning about 6000 BP. By the early 1830s the United States produced the majority of the world's cotton which lead to the expansion of slavery in the United States and by the 1850s slaves made up 50% of the population of the states which produced majority of cotton in US: Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. [14], Christopher Columbus, in his explorations of the Bahamas and Cuba, found natives wearing cotton ("the costliest and handsomest... cotton mantles and sleeveless shirts embroidered and painted in different designs and colours"), a fact that may have contributed to his incorrect belief that he had landed on the coast of India. In order to compete with India, Britain invested in labour-saving technical progress, while implementing protectionist policies such as bans and tariffs to restrict Indian imports. After the American Civil War ended in 1865, British and French traders abandoned Egyptian cotton and returned to cheap American exports,[citation needed] sending Egypt into a deficit spiral that led to the country declaring bankruptcy in 1876, a key factor behind Egypt's occupation by the British Empire in 1882. In different eras and among different Mesoamerican cultures, cotton was a highly demanded good and a precious exchange item. Cotton (Gossypium sp.) [25], The largest manufacturing industry in the Mughal Empire was cotton textile manufacturing, which included the production of piece goods, calicos, and muslins, available unbleached and in a variety of colours. [7], The oldest cotton fabric has been found in Huaca Prieta in Peru, dated to about 6000 BCE. [23], It was reported that, with an Indian cotton gin, which is half machine and half tool, one man and one woman could clean 28 pounds of cotton per day.


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