On the other hand, Gormally, Brickman, Hallar & Armstrong (2009) reported that students taught using the inquiry method experienced frustration with the process of ‘figuring things out’ on their own. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38, 529–552. In crafting the detailed lesson plan for this group, each lesson segment was explicitly labelled with its intended stage of inquiry learning. Socio-economic research/evaluation of satellite-based societal In the year prior to this study, these students had been streamed into these three classes. Such a correlation was absent in classes where TPI was employed, suggesting that in these classes, the scores on both tests, which were conducted at the end of the unit of instruction, were somewhat independent of each other. The SEM is a self-appraisal tool used by a school to score itself in various domains such as leadership, staff management, strategic planning and academic results (Ng 2003). From practical mathematical computations related to the discipline to critical thinking related to elements of theoretical physics, PowerPapers.com can guide physics related research topics from idea inception to completing a final draft. Gormally, C., Brickman, P., Hallar, B., & Armstrong, N. (2009). This particular study was borne out of a collective belief among a team of physics teachers that traditional forms of instruction were not effective in achieving teaching and learning outcomes in thermal physics. Second, it shifted students from viewing science as a fixed, unchanging body of knowledge to appreciating the complexity of using this knowledge to make relevant and valid judgments about their environment, and this resonated with the nature of science learning as presented by Capps and Crawford (2013) earlier. Words of encouragement or social messages can result in an increase in an individual’s self-efficacy, thus causing the person to put in extra effort and persist in successfully completing a task. This could explain the marked increase in SP scores, as there were ample opportunities for their teacher and peers to positively affirm the work they were engaged in. Conversely, the absence of any correlation between conceptual understanding and student achievement in the TPI classrooms also imply that when traditional instruction is employed, scores on achievement tests may not be accurate predictors of student understanding of the subject matter. Existing modes of assessment would be shown to be inadequate in accurately measuring students’ subject matter knowledge. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 41(10), 1081–1110. These, together with the fact that they were already engaged in their own activities during the lesson meant that there was hardly any opportunity for vicarious learning to take place. On the other hand, having a significant proportion of students scoring well in achievement tests despite having poor conceptual understanding of the subject matter would be equally, if not even more, problematic. In other words, they had become more adept at test-preparation and test-taking than their peers in N2 and N3. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 35(1), 75–87. Policymakers in Singapore, however, have recognized the need for science teaching and learning to be driven by inquiry-oriented approaches. Lee, O., Buxton, C., Lewis, S., & LeRoy, K. (2006). Asia-Pacific Science Education. The Singapore school and the school excellence model. Proponents of inquiry-based instruction argue that teaching through inquiry improves student engagement in science learning and promotes deep conceptual learning of scientific concepts because it introduces students to a type of learning that ‘parallels the work of practicing scientists’ (Capps and Crawford 2013; Hodson 1992). Asia-Pacific Science Education The role of students as passive recipients of a static body of knowledge is no longer relevant today; it must be replaced by one where students are active learners who are capable of examining data, forming hypotheses and constructing knowledge that is tentative and subject to scrutiny. The field of thermal physics is one that students interact with on an almost daily basis from very early on in their lives. Results from a further analysis of the four self-efficacy subscales for N2 students are summarised in Table 1. Students remained within three intact classes to minimise disruption to the students as well as the broader school curriculum. Part of There are a number of other possibilities that could have contributed to such an outcome. And I have usually been at ease in this class.) For the purpose of this study, students from 3 N2 were selected to be in the treatment group while students from 3 N1 and 3 N3 were selected to be in the control group. While items in the concept evaluation test were well-researched and carefully selected to probe students’ overall understanding of thermal physics, test items in the achievement test were directly lifted off previous years’ national examination papers so they may have been skewed towards testing particular concepts related to thermal physics. (2007). For a system that has experienced such tremendous change over the past three decades, it is odd that our assessment landscape continues to remain largely dormant. In terms of conceptual understanding of science content, there is sufficient evidence in the existing literature to suggest that learning gains have a cumulative effect and they become more significant when the intervention is carried out over several years (Lee, Buxton, Lewis & LeRoy, 2006). Baser, M. (2006). The impact of authentic learning on students' engagement with physics. In recent years, a number of studies involving inquiry learning have reported its positive effects on science education (Fortus, Dershimer, Krajcik, Marx & Mamlok-Naaman, 2004; Hmelo, Holton & Kolodner, 2000). Merchant, Z., Goetz, E. T., Keeney-Kennicutt, W., Kwok, O. M., Cifuentes, L., & Davis, T. J. This could have contributed to the increase in ME and PS scores. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 16(1), 99–111.

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